What is the Refresh Rate?

Updated Feb 17, 2014 By Cedric Demers

The refresh rate is the number of frames per second the television can display. Its unit is a Hertz, which is equal to 1/second. 120Hz means it can draw 120 images per second.

The refresh rate of televisions is misleading and is mixed with marketing lies. The increased refresh rate (120Hz and higher) was introduced by manufacturers as an indirect way to reduce the motion blur problem of LCDs and LEDs. However, the response time of 120Hz and 240Hz TVs is usually the same as 60Hz ones.

Do not look at the refresh rate of a TV. Not only the advertised number is false, but a 120Hz+ TV does not reduce the amount of motion blur in console games.
The response time is the best measure of motion blur in an LED TV. It is the time a pixel takes to transition from one color to another.

Additionally, manufacturers are inflating the advertised refresh rate number like with Samsung's Clear Motion Rate as explained in the next page of this article.

To prove that a 120Hz TV does not reduce motion blur, we filmed in slow motion a 60Hz TV next to a 120Hz one when displaying a Blu-ray movie. As you can see, the amount of blur is exactly the same.

The only advantages of a 120Hz+ refresh rate TV are the soap opera effect and supporting 24p playback. In our video, the soap opera effect option was set to off because most people don't like that option.

The same is true for video games. Video consoles games (even the Xbox One and PS4) displays at maximum 60 frames per second. When displaying this on a 120Hz TV, the panel just draws each frame twice, so it doesn't reduce the blur.

For a gaming PC monitor though, the 120Hz refresh rate does reduce the amount of motion blur considerably because computers can generate 120+ frames per second.

Does the refresh rate mean the same thing for an LCD, LED and Plasma?

No. An LCD/LED panel retains the picture for the entire frame duration. This is called the sample and hold method. A plasma TV works differently. It uses very short pulses to draw the picture. For each frame, it emits a series of pulse depending on the intensity of the colors.

When LCD TVs started advertising higher refresh rates meant to reduce motion blur, plasma TVs manufacturers didn't want to appear obsolete even though they display better motion by default. To keep up with their marketing, they started including a number in Hz. This number is not the amount of frames per second it can display, but the inverse of the duration of a small pulse. For example, a 600Hz plasma means its pulse length is 1/600 second, even though it only draws 60 frames per second.

Check out our article on the differences between plasma and led to learn more about this.

Displaying a 120fps signal on a 120Hz+ television

As of 2013, there is no television officially supporting a true 120 frames per second signal as an input. Even a real 120Hz or 240Hz television does not support a source of 120fps. They can only display at that speed frames created by themselves using motion interpolation. For example, you can feed a television a 1080p @ 24Hz signal, which it will up convert to 1080p @ 120Hz internally; but you cannot feed it directly a 1080p @ 120 signal.

Although not officially supported, some people were able to hack it, either by faking the signal as being 3D or by overclocking it.

Despite the fact that the HDMI version 1.4 added support for 1080p @ 120Hz, there is no content available to display on a TV at that frame rate. Only a computer can generate this high frame rate. This will not change anytime soon. Gaming consoles are limited to only 60fps, even the PS4 and Xbox One. Movies are being shot at 24 fps. The first movie shot in 48fps is The Hobbit and it is only available at that speed in some specific theaters.

Currently, the only screens than can display a real 120fps signal are some 120Hz computer monitors on high end graphic cards.


For TVs, the refresh rate means nothing, especially with manufacturers inflating their numbers. A high refresh rate TV does not guarantee it to be motion blur free. Even for console gaming, there is no advantage to a 120Hz+ TV because the console video games are capped at 60 fps anyway.

For gaming on a PC though, a higher refresh rate monitor is definitely worth it if you have a strong enough graphic card.

The next pages of this article explains two features usually found on 120Hz+ TVs, but they are irrelevant to gaming.

The best 120Hz LED TV for the price that we tested is the Samsung H6350 LED TV.


Mar 12 2013
I just recently purchased the Samsung 40EH5300, and while I love the TV per se, I'm noticing a blue hue or halo around moving people and objects...what is this? How can it be fixed?
This is most likely motion blur: the panel cannot draw the images fast enough so they end up superposing themselves. This is common for TVs in this price range. While it cannot be fixed, you can try playing with the settings to reduce it (like the LED Motion Plus setting).
Mar 30 2014
How noticeable is the difference between 120hz and 240hz, like in Samsung h6400 vs f7100?
Not very noticeable. We will review the H6400 in a few weeks to confirm this.
Dec 07 2012
I bought a Samsung UA46ES5600 LED TV. It has 100Hz refresh rate. Is there a noticable difference in picture quality compared to a 120Hz tv? Should I trade it in for a 120Hz tv instead?
They are actually the same thing. The actual number depends on your country and the frequency of the AC electricity that goes into your home, 50Hz or 60Hz. A 100Hz refresh rate in a 50Hz country is the equivalent of a 120Hz refresh rate in a 60Hz country. They both are twice the base frequency. So if you bought a 100Hz, that means you couldn't actually buy a 120Hz in your country. You can convert a 60Hz based refresh rate to a 50Hz by simply dividing by 1.2 and this applies also to the inflated marketing number like Samsung's Clear Motion Rate: 240 = 200, 480 = 400, 720 = 600, 840 = 700 and 960 = 800. We did not put both in the table above to keep it simple. There is one difference though, and it is how they handle playing video at 24 frames per second. In a 60Hz, 24 fps is fit by using the 3:2 pulldown technique as described above. In a 50Hz TV though, the movie is actually speed up by 4.2%, so a 1h40 min movie will actually be played in 1h36. This isn't very noticeable.
Dec 10 2012
I currently have a Sharp Aquos 40" smart Tv. I am considering buying a larger one and moving this one to a smaller room. Should I be looking at a 60Hz or is the extra money for 120 worth it?
If you do not care about the soap opera effect, get a 60Hz.
Nov 27 2013
I'm pondering over two different LED TV's the Samsung UN46F6300 and the LG 47LN5700 both are smart TV's and slightly different cost. Which is better?
It depends what you prefer. The UN46F6300 has an overall better picture quality, especially the contrast. However, the viewing angle is less than the 47LN5400. If you don't care about the viewing angle, go for the Samsung.
Jan 12 2013
Does 60hz vs 120hz matter for gaming on Xbox 360 or ps3; especially for 1st person shooters?
There is no console that output at 120Hz. There is no TV that accept such signal anyway. Also, motion interpolation increase to much the input lag that it becomes unusable for games, especially FPS. Therefore, no, a 120Hz is useless for games. However, the best TVs are at least 120Hz these days, so good TVs with minimal motion blur and good picture quality are at least 120Hz. So do not look at the refresh rate, but you will have a better picture quality with higher end models.
Nov 28 2012
Does all 120Hz+ televisions can support to display a source input at 120Hz? My concern is just that in 5 years or so, would I need a TV to support this?
No, there is currently no HDTV available that offically support playing 1080p @ 120Hz, not even the high end 240Hz televisions. They can only display at that speed with their own motion interpolated frames. Currently, only some computer monitors can display such signal, mostly because only computers can output at that speed. We updated this article to include a section on this, with further explanation.
Feb 08 2013
Can you please explain how plasma 600hz sub field motion fits into all this? Does it use image interpolation? How does this fit with 24p? 600/24 = 25? Will plasma with its 600hz perform on par or better than a true 240hz lcd/led panel?
A Plasma 600Hz is not the same thing as refresh rate. When LCD TVs started to advertised refresh rates, customers wanted to compare them to Plasmas so manufacturers came up with a number in Hz. It correspond to the number of times per second a plasma cell is charged to emit light. Note that Plasmas never suffered from motion blur like LCDs, so they only advertise this to make that clear. Most Plasmas now also support image interpolation and 24p playback, but some older/low models don't.
Apr 29 2013
Why dont you recommend more than 120Hz? Can some sports, such as football, formula 1, be watched perfectly on 100Hz actual rate?
The difference is reduced after that. Yes they are better but for the majority of people, 120Hz is good enough. There is no such thing as perfect especially on an LED.
Oct 27 2013
I'm looking for a 120Hz screen for my computer and I plan to watch movies and play games at over 100fps. Is the Samsung 40f6100 a true 120Hz pannel with all the effects like movie mode-motion "magic" turned off? I want a screen able to behave like a 120Hz monitor.Or I should go for f6500?
Unfortunately, there are no TV that officially support an input frame rate of more than 60fps yet. It can be done on some TVs, but it is undocumented and not guaranteed.
Jan 21 2014
Picture wise, when I go into BestBuy, the F8000 looks better than the F7100 Samsung. Is it noticeable by the eye to tell the difference between 240hz models or is it a ploy by Bestbuy to sell the more expensive TV? Looking to purchase shortly. Your preference between UN46f7500 or UN46f8000?
Samsung default showroom settings are the cause of it. The colors are over saturated, with a red tint and the brightness set very high to make them 'pop'. Calibrated correctly, you won't see a difference especially in a bright room like a retail floor. If you do not want the extra features of the F8000, save your money and buy a lower model.
Jan 28 2014
I want to buy the LG 42LN5400 and using it as a display for my pc. Will this tv able to handle 60 Hz input from my GPU ? Also is this tv 4:4:4 chroma capable ?
Yes and yes.
Feb 04 2014
I live in Europe and want to play some console games that, even though they are PAL games, say "60 Hz only" on the cover. If I understand this article correctly, I should get a TV with a real refresh rate of 100 Hz, since if I get one with a real refresh rate of 50 Hz, it would be too low for the 60 Hz content. Is this correct, or would a 50 Hz TV actually work with 60 Hz games? What about motion blur and input lag, would I get worse picture quality and lag when playing games on a 100 Hz TV compared to a 50 Hz TV?
No, even 50Hz TVs can display 60Hz. In Europe, all Full HD TVs must support at least 1080p @ 60Hz and 1080p @ 50Hz. The inverse is not true. In North America, not all 60Hz TVs can display 50Hz.
Feb 04 2014
I just purchased the 75" Samsung F7100 Ultra Slim LED TV that says it has a clear motion rating of 720. Is that a 240Hz? What's your opinion on this TV?
Yes it is. It is a very good TV. The only major downside is the narrow viewing angle.
Mar 21 2014
Is there any improvement in the new Samsung F6xxx series over the equivalent D6xxx of 2011 in terms of picture quality? Are the new panels of 6th series better without ultra clear panel? The AMP works better in 2013 (less judder/stutter/blur) ? Overall does it worth replacing the D series with the F other than for the new smart tv features and a faster multicore CPU?
Overall, the difference is pretty small. The backlight uniformity is better though. The AMP does work better but it still has artifacts. If your D6xxx TV still works, keep your money and wait a few more years.
Nov 20 2013
Panasonic ST60 has 2500 Hz and GT60 has 3000 Hz. So what is the real refresh rate values for Panasonic of that kind?
The refresh rate of plasma TVs does not mean the same thing as of LCDs, so you can't really compare the number. It isn't the number of full frames that they can display per second, but the duration of the short period of excitement of the phosphor cell. To display a full frame, it will flashes multiple times (depending on the intensity of the picture).
Dec 01 2013
Does TV with 3D option take away from picture quality when on normal TV?
Not at all. It is a separate additional feature that doesn't affect 2D capabilities. If you want though, all 3D TVs contains a 2D to 3D converter (but it isn't as good as native 3D content).
Jan 21 2014
What do you think about IKEAs Uppleva 46" TV?
Unfortunately, we haven't tested it so cannot comment.
Mar 20 2014
What would you recommend for a 46" smart TV monitor that will be primarily be used gaming and sometimes for streaming?
Check out our article on 46-47" TVs for our recommendation.
Apr 19 2014
I am trying to decide on a Samsung 65" model H6350 120 hz or H7150 240 hz. Can you tell a difference in picture quality?
Check out our review of the H6350. We will review the H7150 next week, but we do not expect a significant difference in picture quality.
Jul 04 2014
I tested samsung h6400 with and without "clear motion rate" turned on and the difference playing videogames is just absolutely amazing. For example, the game split second velocity only runs at 30fps in a xbox 360 console, with "clear motion rate on" the game seems to be running at very lovely 60fps, so, for playing this is amazing, i also tested fifa 14, that runs (according to specifications) to 60 fps, but sometimes this game suffers frame drops due to the high amount of ram the the game needs when it handle to many subjects on the screen, but again with clear motion rate on, the game runs so smooth that seems you are playing it on next gen consoles intead the actual one, i did the same test on a Old LG with true motion 120 (obiously real refresh rate was 60hz) and even when you can feel there was some true motion improvement, the trumotion fails dropping frames an make true motion disappears at times, which is so annoying when you are playing fast games, so after this brief intro (jajaj) my question: Which is the best led for getting the best cmr, motion flow, or motion index available? 240hz would make games look better? (I couldn't did test on that one cause i do not own one with that refresh rate) Thanks in advance for answering
No TV interpolation is perfect. Frame drops will happens on all of them as soon as something big moves too fast. Artifacts are also common, even on 240Hz TVs. Have you had a look at our motion test pictures? You might find the pictures of the motion interpolation settings interesting. The G letter of our logo is not complete on almost all of them. Honestly, there isn't a visual difference between the interpolation on a 120Hz vs 240Hz. The difference is more visible without interpolation due to the backlight strobbing (check out for example the H6400 vs H7150 with no interpolation to see what I mean by this). At that point, it is the response time of the pixels that is the bottleneck (unless using an aggressive backlight setting).
Aug 28 2014
I'm in the market of purchasing 3 TVs. I have to say that money is not a consideration. The first one is for a total black cinema room and my choices are Panasonic AX-800 (4K) 3200$ or either VT60 3500$ or ZT60 4300$ (plasma) 65 inches? The second one is a kitchen tv light and windows, I've only have for now the choice of an LG 42LB6300 (IPS, 1080p) is there anything else better? The third one is a bedroom and the choices are LG 32LB5800 or Samsung UN32H6350, and again is there anything else better out there?
1) Get the ZT60. Arguably, the VT60 is almost as good for less, but if money is not a concern, get the ZT60. The Panasonic LED 4k is simply no match for a plasma picture quality in a dark room.
2) In a kitchen, you probably indeed need an IPS panel to benefit from its wide viewing angle. They reflect a bit more lights though. The LG 42LB6300 should be more than enough here.
3) For the bedroom, get the Samsung UN32H6350 (assuming you don't care about viewing angle here, because you can just rotate the TV towards your bed). It has better blacks than the LG.
Feb 01 2013
I am in doubt about two different TVs: one is a Sony 60" with motion flow 240hz and the other is a Sony 55" with motion flow 480hz. My preference is a bigger TV, but I'm in doubt about the refresh rate. Is the difference too big?
If you are in doubt, get the bigger one (the 60" with Motion Flow 240Hz, so a panel of 120Hz). The majority of people will prefer the difference in size than the difference in picture quality of the jump from 120Hz to 240Hz (real refresh rate, not Motion Flow). The difference in picture quality is there, but unless you are very picky, the difference in size is bigger.
Apr 20 2013
Do you think motion blur for decent/good quality LED TVs these days is significantly worse than for plasmas of the same size?
Yes, but LED motion handling is good enough for 90% of the population. Most people will not even be able to tell the difference between an LED and plasma motion wise. When using normal footage (like a movie), motion blur can barely be seen and most of the time it is actually in the video content. The difference between a plasma and LED is more evident when using special patterns, created to expose these flaws.
Aug 07 2013
I know you said not to worry about plasma hz, but I don't know whether to buy a LED or plasma, and I want the most true picture possible for my money. So a 2500hz FFD is equivalent in LED hz? Is it worth the cost in electricity bills to get a plasma rather than a LED? Lastly if I purchase a PVR TV, will any USB work or does it have to be the TV makers brand of USB or HDD for recording?
A 2500Hz FFD can't be compared to an LED Hz because it is not the number of frames per second the TV can display. Nearly all plasmas have less blur than an LED. Check out our full plasma vs led guide for the full throw down including power consumption. Any USB drive will work with your PVR TV.
Oct 30 2013
Are 120Hz televisions bad for gaming?
They are not bad, it is just that the 120Hz is not useful for console gaming. Motion interpolation needs to be turned off during games because it adds too much input lag. Also, console games are only 30 or 60 frames per second.
Nov 12 2013
I was considering a 100Hz TV (LG), but now I can get the 200Hz version for the same price. The TV's are very similar, just some more features on the 200Hz version which also has better looks. Is there any disadvantage chosing the 200Hz version? Can you set the 200Hz to 100Hz instead if that's a problem?
There is no downside, so if they are the same price, get the higher model.
Dec 18 2013
Good review about refresh rate on each brand and model. But I am confused about what is best for FPS or better for ps3, HD movies, streaming, 3D content on movies and ps3 games because I want to buy a tv that give me all my needs. I have two models in mind: Sony KDL-55w805a and LG 55LA6600. Which of these two you would recommend, or another one?
We haven't tested these exact models, but they should be really similar. Both uses IPS LCD panels and are passive 3D, therefore Sony most likely bought it from LG.
Dec 24 2013
I have a Samsung UE55F6740 and there is significant motion blur and ghosting effect with video games and sports streaming from satellite. They claim the TV has 600 CMR (Clear Motion Rate) even though the TV only has a refresh rate of 100 Hz. This additional processing does not help get rid of the blur or ghosting effect. Do you thing this is a problem with all Samsung LED TV's? and apart from the burn-in effect on PLASMAS, would you recommend the Panasonic P50GT60B or Samsung PS51F5500 for gaming?
Yes, this is common to all LEDs and it isn't due to the refresh rate of the TV. You will be better off with a plasma. Note however the part of the blur that comes from the low frame rate of the source content cannot be eliminated on any display.
Dec 29 2013
I bought LG 55LA7400 because of its capability of Trumotion 240HZ. But the thing is, I tried blu ray Disc, Xbox one Games, 3D Disc, and Live NBA games on this TV, when I press the display button on the remote, it only shows 1080P/60HZ. Is there anyway I can adjust the refresh rate. Or, like what you said, the TV will convert to 240HZ internally.
This is normal. It displays the input frame rate of the source, which is independent of the TV. If you turn on TruMotion, it will convert to 240Hz internally.
Jan 09 2014
I currently have a lg 55la691v on trial from a dealer. The dealer said it was 100hz, but the display on the tv while watching says 50hz no matter which channel I watch, and there's a sticker on the back saying something about power: 50/60hz. I'm also less than impressed while playing FIFA 14, and the goalie kicks the ball out and the picture is a bit blurry for a second. Is this the tv or the ps4? Is the tv 100 hz? I'm not sure I've found the optimal setting for playing though.
This is normal. The TV will display the input signal frame rate, not the panel. And at the back, it is the frequency of the electricity needed. When playing console games, the refresh rate of the TV doesn't matter anyway, because you can't use motion interpolation on it due to the increased input lag. The blur that you are experiencing is due to the TV and can't be fixed.
Apr 23 2014
Is there a discernible difference between Samsung's 720, 840, 960 and 1200 Clear Motion Rate (all are 240hz)?
Usually, not in term of motion handling. The differences are more in the extra features.
May 10 2014
There are reviews stating that LG LA6200 has only 60hz and a horrible motion resolution, with only 300 lines, is it true?
It is definitely 120Hz as you can see from our slow motion video. We don't measure the line motion resolution, but yes, there is definitely more blur than the average LED (but this is common to a lot of LG models).
Jun 17 2014
I am thinking of purchasing a Panasonic TH32A400A for console Gaming with an Xbox One. It states that it has 100 Hz Back Light Blinking and then it says 50 Hz Native. I was told by friends and merchants that the higher refresh rate for gaming the better. But I've read some of the comments above and apparently refresh rate has no impact on console gaming. But that was before the new consoles were released. How does native and max refresh rate work and will it have an impact on an Xbox One?
Refresh rate indeed as no impact on console gaming. Even on the Xbox One, games are maximum 60 fps (a lot of them are still only 30 fps). The native refresh rate is the real one, the other number is just turning on and off the backlight of the screen.
Jun 29 2014
Hi rtings. You have helped me so much to decide what TV I will buy and I want to thank the whole staff for helping me! Back to the point, I am comparing two TVs, One (LG) has a dual-core processor with 2GB RAM, the other one (Samsung) has a quadcore processor. I want the highest Soap opera feeling when I watch tv. My question is, does the processor contribute anything to increased Soap opera effect and the Hz on the tv, or, does it even improve picture quality? Thank you so much for helping me!
No it doesn't. TVs have a separate dedicated chip that does the interpolation. The processor speed only affects the smart TV features and apps, not the picture quality.
Jul 31 2014
Why does my 50 inch LG LB6300 display 1080i 60hz PCM if it is labeled a 120hz TV?
This is normal. TVs only display the input signal.
Aug 05 2014
What makes the most difference in picture quality, the screen or panel or the guts of the tv?
In order: the panel, the backlight (for LED TVs) and then the software processing. The panel is really 90% of the picture quality. If two TVs have the same panel, once they are calibrated properly you won't really see a difference between them.
Aug 13 2014
I am indecisive between two TV's, a Samsung 40H6400 or a Panasonic 42AS650. I know the panasonic has a 50/60 Hz panel and the Samsung has a 100/120 Hz panel but the Panasonic has 1200 BLS and the Samsung has 400 CMR, question is, which spec with offers a better picture quality on standard definition, 100Hz with 400 CMR or 50Hz with 1200 BLS?
Do not look at either of those specs. It means nothing, especially the inflated number. That Panasonic uses an IPS panel. This means it has a far better viewing angle than the Samsung, but also a far worse contrast ratio (worse blacks in a dark room). Choose what you prefer depending on your room setup / lighting.
Sep 16 2014
I just purchased the 32" Samsung H4500 Smart TV LED. What's your opinion on this TV?
Unfortunately, we haven't tested that TV yet.
Sep 27 2014
I am not an expert but would an led tv with an 800hz processing rate and 1080p HD be ideal for xbox one games that run 60 frames per second to be presented on the tv as best as possible?
Don't look at the number of Hz, it means nothing. Whether a TV is good or not depends on the model number and brand.
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